Assessing the performance of a Northeast Asia Japan-centered 3-D ionosphere specification technique during the 2015 St. Patrick’s day geomagnetic storm
This paper demonstrates and assesses the capability of the advanced three-dimensional (3-D) ionosphere tomography technique, during severe conditions. The study area is northeast Asia and quasi-Japan-centred. Reconstructions are based on total electron content data from a dense ground-based global navigation satellite system receiver network and parameters from operational ionosondes. We used observations from ionosondes, Swarm satellites and radio occultation (RO) to assess the 3-D picture. Specifically, we focus on St. Patrick’s day geomagnetic storm (17–19 March 2015), the most intense in solar cycle 24. During this event, the energy ingested into the ionosphere resulted in Dst and Kp and reaching values \textasciitilde − 223 nT and 8, respectively, and the region of interest, the East Asian sector, was characterized by a \textasciitilde 60\% reduction in electron densities. Results show that the reconstructed densities follow the physical dynamics previously discussed in earlier publications about storm events. Moreover, even when ionosonde data were not available, the technique could still provide a consistent picture of the ionosphere vertical structure. Furthermore, analyses show that there is a profound agreement between the RO profiles/in-situ densities and the reconstructions. Therefore, the technique is a potential candidate for applications that are sensitive to ionospheric corrections.
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Earth, Planets and Space (Online)