Global patterns of Joule heating in the high-latitude ionosphere
A compiled empirical global Joule heating (CEJH) model is described in this study. This model can be used to study Joule heating patterns, Joule heating power, potential drop, and polar potential size in the high-latitude ionosphere and thermosphere, and their variations with solar wind conditions, geomagnetic activities, the solar EUV radiation, and the neutral wind. It is shown that the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) orientation and its magnitude, the solar wind speed, AL index, geomagnetic Kp index, and solar radio flux F10.7 index are important parameters that control Joule heating patterns, Joule heating power, potential drop, and polar potential size. Other parameters, such as the solar wind number density (Nsw) and Earth\textquoterights dipole tilt, do not significantly affect these quantities. It is also shown that the neutral wind can increase or reduce the Joule heating production, and its effectiveness mainly depends on the IMF orientation and its magnitude, the solar wind speed, AL index, Kp index, and F10.7 index. Our results indicate that for less disturbed solar wind conditions, the increase or reduction of the neutral wind contribution to the Joule heating is not significant compared to the convection Joule heating, whereas under extreme solar wind conditions, the neutral wind can significantly contribute to the Joule heating. Application of the CEJH model to the 16 July 2000 storm implies that the model outputs are basically consistent with the results from the AMIE mapping procedure. The CEJH model can be used to examine large-scale energy deposition during disturbed solar wind conditions and to study the dependence of the hemispheric Joule heating on the level of geomagnetic activities and the intensity of solar EUV radiation. This investigation enables us to predict global Joule heating patterns for other models in the high-latitude ionosphere and thermosphere in the sense of space weather forecasting.
|Year of Publication
Journal of Geophysical Research