Was Magnetic Storm the Only Driver of the Long-Duration Enhancements of Daytime Total Electron Content in the Asian-Australian Sector Between 7 and 12 September 2017?


In this study, multiple data sets from Beidou geostationary orbit satellites total electron contents (TECs), ionosonde, meteor radar, magnetometer, and model simulations have been used to investigate the ionospheric responses in the Asian-Australian sector during the September 2017 geomagnetic storm. It was found that long-duration daytime TEC enhancements that lasted from 7 to 12 September 2017 were observed by the Beidou geostationary orbit satellite constellation. This is a unique event as the prominent TEC enhancements persisted during the storm recovery phase when geomagnetic activity became quiet. The Thermosphere-Ionosphere Electrodynamics Global Circulation Model predicted that the TEC enhancements on 7\textendash9 September were associated with the geomagnetic activity, but it showed significant electron density depletions on 10 and 11 September in contrast to the observed TEC enhancements. Our results suggested that the observed long-duration TEC enhancements from 7 to 12 September are mainly associated with the interplay of ionospheric dynamics and electrodynamics. Nevertheless, the root causes for the observed TEC enhancements seen in the storm recovery phase are unknown and require further observations and model studies.

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Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics
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