How might the thermosphere and ionosphere react to an extreme space weather event?

This chapter explores how the thermosphere and ionosphere (T-I) might respond to extreme solar events. Three different scenarios are considered: (1) an increase in solar UV and EUV radiation for a number of days, (2) an extreme enhancement in the solar X-rays and EUV radiation associated with a flare, and (3) an extreme CME driving a geomagnetic storm. Estimating the response to the first two scenarios is reasonably well defined, and although they would certainly impact the T-I system, those impacts could potentially be mitigated. In contrast, the response to an extreme geomagnetic storm is significantly more complicated, making the response much more uncertain, and mitigation more challenging.
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