Spatial-Temporal Behaviors of Large-Scale Ionospheric Perturbations During Severe Geomagnetic Storms on September 7–8 2017 Using the GNSS, SWARM and TIE-GCM Techniques

Geomagnetic storms on 7–8 September 2017 triggered severe ionospheric disturbances that had a serious effect on satellite navigation and radio communication. Multiple observations derived from Global Navigation Satellite System receivers, Earth s Magnetic Field and Environment Explorers (SWARM) and the Thermosphere-Ionosphere -Electrodynamics General Circulation Model s simulations are utilized to investigate the spatial-temporal ionospheric behaviors under storm conditions. The results indicate that the electron density in the Asia-Australia, Europe-Africa and America sectors suddenly changed with the Bz southward excursion, and the ionosphere over low-middle latitudes under the sunlit hemisphere is easily affected by the disturbed magnetic field. The SWARM observations verified the remarkable double-peak structure of plasma enhancements over the equator and middle latitudes. The physical mechanism of low-middle plasma disturbances can be explained by a combination effect of equatorial electrojets, vertical E × B drifts, meridional wind and thermospheric O/N2 change. Besides, the severe storms triggered strong Polar plasma disturbances on both dayside and nightside hemispheres, and the Polar disturbances had a latitudinal excursion associated with the offset of geomagnetic field. Remarkable plasma enhancements at the altitudes of 100–160 km were also observed in the auroral zone and middle latitudes (\textgreater47.5°N/S). The topside polar ionospheric plasma enhancements were dominated by the O+ ions. Furthermore, the TIE-GCM s simulations indicate that the enhanced vertical E × B drifts, cross polar cap potential and Joule heating play an important role in generating the topside plasma perturbations.
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Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics
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