Climatology of global, hemispheric and regional electron content variations during the solar cycles 23 and 24

We present the results of study on the variations of ionospheric total electron content (TEC) by using global, hemispheric, and regional electron contents computed from the global ionospheric maps (GIMs) for the period from 1999 to 2020. For a low and moderate solar activity, the global and regional electron contents vary linearly with solar 10.7 cm radio flux and EUV flux. While a saturation effect in the electron content verses EUV and F10.7 is found during the high solar activity periods at all regions, the maximum effect is observed at low-latitudes followed by high and mid-latitudes region. The extent of saturation effect is more pronounced for F10.7 as compared to EUV. A wavelet transform is applied to global and hemispheric electron contents to examine the relative strength of different variations. The semi-annual variations dominate in the northern hemisphere, whereas annual variations dominate in the southern counterpart. The amplitude of annual variations in southern hemisphere is found to be higher than northern counterpart at all latitudes. This asymmetry in the amplitude of annual variation is maximum at low-latitudes, followed by mid and high-latitudes, respectively. The semi-annual variations are in-phase in both hemisphere and follow the solar cycle. The northern hemisphere depicts relatively large amplitude of semi-annual variations and exhibit the maximum effect at high-latitudes.
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Advances in Space Research
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