Effects of the 12 May 2021 Geomagnetic Storm on Georeferencing Precision
In this work, we present the positioning error analysis of the 12 May 2021 moderate geomagnetic storm. The storm happened during spring in the northern hemisphere (fall in the south). We selected 868 GNSS stations around the globe to study the ionospheric and the apparent position variations. We compared the day of the storm with the three previous days. The analysis shows the global impact of the storm. In the quiet days, 93\% of the stations had 3D errors less than 10 cm, while during the storm, only 41\% kept this level of accuracy. The higher impact was over the Up component. Although the stations have algorithms to correct ionospheric disturbances, the inaccuracies lasted for nine hours. The most severe effects on the positioning errors were noticed in the South American sector. More than 60\% of the perturbed stations were located in this region. We also studied the effects produced by two other similar geomagnetic storms that occurred on 27 March 2017 and on 5 August 2019. The comparison of the storms shows that the effects on position inaccuracies are not directly deductible neither from the characteristics of geomagnetic storms nor from enhancement and/or variations of the ionospheric plasma.
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