TitleThe non-storm time corrugated upper thermosphere: What is beyond MSIS?
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuthorsLiu, H, Thayer, J, Zhang, Y, Lee, WKyoung
JournalSpace Weather
Pagination746 - 760
Date Published06/2017

Observations in the recent decade have revealed many thermospheric density corrugations/perturbations under nonstorm conditions (Kp < 2). They are generally not captured by empirical models like Mass Spectrometer Incoherent Scatter (MSIS) but are operationally important for long‐term orbital evolution of Low Earth Orbiting satellites and theoretically for coupling processes in the atmosphere‐ionosphere system. We review these density corrugations by classifying them into three types which are driven respectively by the lower atmosphere, ionosphere, and solar wind/magnetosphere. Model capabilities in capturing these features are discussed. A summary table of these corrugations is included to provide a quick guide on their magnitudes, occurring latitude, local time, and season.

Short TitleSpace Weather

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