TitleThe Morphology of Equatorial Plasma Bubbles - a review
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2015
AuthorsKil, H
JournalJournal of Astronomy and Space Sciences
Pagination13 - 19
Date Published03/2013
KeywordsEquatorial ionosphere; irregularities; plasma bubble

Plasma bubbles that occur in the equatorial F-region make up one of the most distinguishing phenomena in the ionosphere. Bubbles represent plasma depletions with respect to the background ionosphere, and are the major source of electron density irregularities in the equatorial F-region. Such bubbles are seen as plasma depletion holes (in situ satellite observations), vertical plumes (radar observations), and emission-depletion bands elongated in the north-south direction (optical observations). However, no technique can observe the whole three-dimensional structure of a bubble. Various aspects of bubbles identified using different techniques indicate that a bubble has a "shell" structure. This paper reviews the development of the concepts of "bubble" and "shell" in this context.

Short TitleJournal of Astronomy and Space Sciences

Page Last Modified: March 10, 2016