GUVI Biblio





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Found 28 entries in the Bibliography.


Showing entries from 1 through 28


2022

Thermospheric density enhancement and limb O 130.4 nm radiance increase during geomagnetic storms

We explore a connection between thermospheric density enhancement and increase in thermospheric O 130.4 nm radiance. We observe TIMED/GUVI enhancements in the limb 130.4 nm radiances at ∼400 and ∼520 km on the dayside during four intense geomagnetic storms in 2003 and 2004. The enhancements were well correlated with Dst and CHAMP total neutral density at 400 km which represents O density as O is the dominant species at those altitudes. At the 400 and 520 km altitudes, O 130.4 nm emissions are mostly created by two ...

Zhang, Yongliang; Paxton, Larry; Schaefer, R.;

Published by: Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics      Published on: mar

YEAR: 2022     DOI: 10.1016/j.jastp.2022.105830

FUV emission; Geomagentic storms; neutral density; thermosphere

Contribution of the lower atmosphere to the day-to-day variation of thermospheric density

In this paper we carried out a numerical experiment using the Specified Dynamics mode of the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model with thermosphere and ionosphere eXtension (SD-WACCM-X). One SD-WACCM-X run was with realistic Kp and F10.7 and the other with constant Kp and F10.7. By comparing the day-to-day variability of thermosphere mass density at 300 km (low earth orbit, LEO) and 120 km (reentry level) in these two runs, we find that the density variation at 300 km is mainly driven by geomagnetic and solar forcing ...

Yue, Jia; Yu, Wandi; Pedatella, Nick; Bruinsma, Sean; Wang, Ningchao; Liu, Huixin;

Published by: Advances in Space Research      Published on: jun

YEAR: 2022     DOI: 10.1016/j.asr.2022.06.011

thermosphere; Lower atmosphere; Modeling; Satelllite drag

A long-range forecasting model for the thermosphere based on the intelligent optimized particle filtering

The uncertainties associated with the variations in the thermosphere are responsible for the inaccurate prediction of the orbit decay of low Earth orbiting space objects due to the drag force. Accurate forecasting of the thermosphere is urgently required to avoid satellite collisions, which is a potential threat to the rapid growth of spacecraft applications. However, owing to the imperfections in the physics-based forecast model, the long-range forecast of the thermosphere is still primitive even if the accurate prediction ...

Ren, Dexin; Lei, Jiuhou;

Published by: Science China Earth Sciences      Published on: jan

YEAR: 2022     DOI: 10.1007/s11430-021-9847-9

Forecast; Intelligent optimized particle filter; thermosphere; Uncertain parameters

Significant Variations of Thermospheric Nitric Oxide Cooling during the Minor Geomagnetic Storm on 6 May 2015

Using observations by the SABER (Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry) instrument on board the TIMED (Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics) satellite and simulations by the TIEGCM (Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Electrodynamics General Circulation Model), we investigate the daytime variations of thermospheric nitric oxide (NO) cooling during the geomagnetic storm on 6 May 2015. The geomagnetic storm was minor, as the minimum Dst was −28 nT, the maximum Kp was 5+ and the maximum AE w ...

Li, Zheng; Sun, Meng; Li, Jingyuan; Zhang, Kedeng; Zhang, Hua; Xu, Xiaojun; Zhao, Xinhua;

Published by: Universe      Published on: apr

YEAR: 2022     DOI: 10.3390/universe8040236

geomagnetic storm; thermosphere; nitric oxide cooling

A Simulation Study on the Variation of Thermospheric O/N2 With Solar Activity

The ratio of number density of atomic oxygen (O) to that of molecular nitrogen (N2) in the thermosphere (O/N2) on the constant pressure surface, which has complex temporal and spatial characteristics, is widely regarded as an important parameter connecting the terrestrial thermosphere and daytime ionosphere. Previous studies demonstrated that the thermospheric O/N2 increases with increasing solar activity, and the changes in O/N2 with solar activity show significant difference between winter and summer hemispheres. However, ...

Li, Zhongli; Luan, Xiaoli; Lei, Jiuhou; Ren, Dexin;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on:

YEAR: 2022     DOI: 10.1029/2022JA030305

circulation; O/N2; photochemistry; solar cycle; thermosphere

2021

Ionospheric response to solar and magnetospheric protons during January 15–22, 2005: EAGLE whole atmosphere model results

We present an analysis of the ionosphere and thermosphere response to Solar Proton Events (SPE) and magnetospheric proton precipitation in January 2005, which was carried out using the model of the entire atmosphere EAGLE. The ionization rates for the considered period were acquired from the AIMOS (Atmospheric Ionization Module Osnabrück) dataset. For numerical experiments, we applied only the proton-induced ionization rates of that period, while all the other model input parameters, including the electron precipitations, c ...

Bessarab, F.; Sukhodolov, T.; Klimenko, M.; Klimenko, V.; Korenkov, Yu.; Funke, B.; Zakharenkova, I.; Wissing, J.; Rozanov, E.;

Published by: Advances in Space Research      Published on: jan

YEAR: 2021     DOI: 10.1016/j.asr.2020.10.026

Ionosphere; Proton precipitations; Solar proton events; thermosphere; Whole atmosphere model

Thermospheric Composition and Solar EUV Flux From the Global-Scale Observations of the Limb and Disk (GOLD) Mission

Observations of far-ultraviolet (FUV) dayglow by the Global-scale Observations of Limb and Disk (GOLD) mission provide a new opportunity to monitor relative composition changes in the upper atmosphere as well as solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV) variability. Relative composition changes are quantified by ΣO/N2, the column density ratio of atomic oxygen to molecular nitrogen, while QEUV provides a measure of the solar EUV energy flux from 1 to 45 nm into the upper atmosphere. This spectral range provides the ionizing radiation ...

Correira, J.; Evans, J.; Lumpe, J.; Krywonos, A.; Daniell, R.; Veibell, V.; McClintock, W.; Eastes, R.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on:

YEAR: 2021     DOI: 10.1029/2021JA029517

GOLD; neutral composition; ON2; QEUV; radiative recombination; thermosphere

First Comparison of Traveling Atmospheric Disturbances Observed in the Middle Thermosphere by Global-Scale Observations of the Limb and Disk to Traveling Ionospheric Disturbances Seen in Ground-Based Total Electron Content Observations

Traveling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs) and their neutral counterparts known as traveling atmospheric disturbances (TADs) are believed to play a role in communicating inputs to other locations in the fluid. While these two phenomena are believed to be connected, they may not have a one-to-one correspondence as the geomagnetic field influences the TID but has no direct impact on the TAD. The relative amplitudes of the perturbations seen in the ionosphere and atmosphere have been observed but rarely together. This study repo ...

England, Scott; Greer, Katelynn; Zhang, Shun-Rong; Evans, Scott; Solomon, Stanley; Eastes, Richard; McClintock, William; Burns, Alan;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on:

YEAR: 2021     DOI: 10.1029/2021JA029248

Ionosphere; thermosphere; airglow; atmospheric waves

PROBA2 LYRA Occultations: Thermospheric Temperature and Composition, Sensitivity to EUV Forcing, and Comparisons With Mars

A method for retrieving temperature and composition from 150 to 350 km in Earth s thermosphere using total number density measurements made via extreme ultraviolet (EUV) solar occultations by the Project for OnBoard Autonomy 2/Large Yield Radiometer (PROBA2/LYRA) instrument is presented. Systematic and random uncertainties are calculated and found to be less than 5\% for the temperature measurements and 5\%–20\% for the composition measurements. Regression coefficients relating both temperature and the [O]/[N2] abundance r ...

Thiemann, Edward; Dominique, Marie;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on:

YEAR: 2021     DOI: 10.1029/2021JA029262

comparative planetology; EUV; occultations; space weather; thermosphere

First Results From the Retrieved Column O/N2 Ratio From the Ionospheric Connection Explorer (ICON): Evidence of the Impacts of Nonmigrating Tides

In near-Earth space, variations in thermospheric composition have important implications for thermosphere-ionosphere coupling. The ratio of O to N2 is often measured using far-UV airglow observations. Taking such airglow observations from space, looking below the Earth s limb allows for the total column of O and N2 in the ionosphere to be determined. While these observations have enabled many previous studies, determining the impact of nonmigrating tides on thermospheric composition has proved difficult, owing to a small con ...

England, Scott; Meier, R.; Frey, Harald; Mende, Stephen; Stephan, Andrew; Krier, Christopher; Cullens, Chihoko; Wu, Yen-Jung; Triplett, Colin; Sirk, Martin; Korpela, Eric; Harding, Brian; Englert, Christoph; Immel, Thomas;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on:

YEAR: 2021     DOI: 10.1029/2021JA029575

airglow; atmospheric composition; Atmospheric tides; thermosphere

Deducing Non-Migrating Diurnal Tides in the Middle Thermosphere With GOLD Observations of the Earth s far Ultraviolet Dayglow From Geostationary Orbit

The global-scale observations of the limb and disk (GOLD) Mission images middle thermosphere temperature and the vertical column density ratio of oxygen to molecular nitrogen (O/N2) using its far ultraviolet imaging spectrographs in geostationary orbit. Since GOLD only measures these quantities during daylight, and only over the ∼140° of longitude visible from geostationary orbit, previously developed tidal analysis techniques cannot be applied to the GOLD data set. This paper presents a novel approach that deduces two sp ...

Krier, Christopher; England, Scott; Greer, Katelynn; Evans, Scott; Burns, Alan; Eastes, Richard;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on:

YEAR: 2021     DOI: 10.1029/2021JA029563

airglow; composition; temperature; thermosphere; tides

2020

The Far Ultraviolet Signatures of Conjugate Photoelectrons Seen by the Special Sensor Ultraviolet Spectrographic Imager

This study investigates the origin of anomalous far ultraviolet emissions observed at night at the subauroral region by the Special Sensor Ultraviolet Spectrographic Imager on board the Defense Meteorological Satellite System-F16 satellite. The global distribution of the anomalous emission is derived using the measurements of the oxygen atom 130.4-nm emission in 2017. Our results show the extension of the anomalous emission from high latitudes to middle latitudes in the Northern American-Atlantic sector during the Decembe ...

Kil, Hyosub; Schaefer, Robert; Paxton, Larry; Jee, Geonhwa;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 01/2020

YEAR: 2020     DOI: 10.1029/2019GL086383

conjugate photoelectron; far ultraviolet emission; thermosphere; remote sensing data

2016

Ionosphere-thermosphere (IT) response to solar wind forcing during magnetic storms

During magnetic storms, there is a strong response in the ionosphere and thermosphere which occurs at polar latitudes. Energy input in the form of Poynting flux and energetic particle precipitation, and energy output in the form of heated ions and neutrals have been detected at different altitudes and all local times. We have analyzed a number of storms, using satellite data from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP), the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE), Gravity field and steady-state Ocean C ...

Huang, Cheryl; Huang, Yanshi; Su, Yi-Jiun; Sutton, Eric; Hairston, Marc; Coley, William;

Published by: Journal of Space Weather and Space Climate      Published on: 01/2016

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1051/swsc/2015041

Energy distribution; Ionosphere; polar cap; solar wind; thermosphere

2015

The August 2011 URSI World Day campaign: Initial results

During a 10-day URSI World Day observational campaign beginning on August 1, 2011, an isolated, major geomagnetic storm occurred. On August 5,\ Kp\ reached values of 8-and\ Dst\ dropped to -113\ nT. The occurrence of this isolated storm in the middle of a 10-day URSI World Day campaign provides and unprecedented opportunity to observe the coupling of solar wind energy into the magnetosphere and to evaluate the varied effects that occur in the coupled magnetosphere\text ...

Immel, Thomas; Liu, Guiping; England, Scott; Goncharenko, Larisa; Erickson, Philip; Lyashenko, Mykhaylo; Milla, Marco; Chau, Jorge; Frey, Harald; Mende, Stephen; Zhou, Qihou; Stromme, Anja; Paxton, Larry;

Published by: Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics      Published on: 11/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1016/j.jastp.2015.09.005

Aeronomy; Ionosphere; Radar; thermosphere

Thermospheric mass density: A review

The mass density of Earth\textquoterights thermosphere (\~90\textendash600\ km altitude) is a critical parameter for low Earth orbit prediction because of the atmospheric drag on satellites in this region. In this review, we first survey techniques for measuring thermospheric density, empirical models that provide a synthesis of historical data, and physical models that simulate the environment by solving fluid equations. We then review the climate and weather features that are observed in thermospheric density (incl ...

Emmert, J.T.;

Published by: Advances in Space Research      Published on: 09/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1016/j.asr.2015.05.038

thermosphere; ~Mass density

A new technique for remote sensing of O 2 density from 140 to 180 km

Observations of molecular oxygen are difficult to make in the Earth\textquoterights atmosphere between 140 and 200 km altitude. Perhaps the most accurate measurements to date have been obtained from satellite instruments that measure solar occultations of the limb. These do provide height-resolved O2 density measurements, but the nature of this technique is such that the temporal/spatial distribution of the measurements is uneven. Here a new space-based technique is described that utilizes two bright dayglow em ...

Hecht, James; Christensen, Andrew; Yee, Jeng-Hwa; Crowley, Geoff; Bishop, Rebeeca; Budzien, Scott; Stephan, Andrew; Evans, Scott;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 01/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2014GL062355

composition; technique; thermosphere

2014

Limb Viewing Hyper Spectral Imager (LiVHySI) for airglow measurements onboard YOUTHSAT-1

Bisht, R.S.; Hait, A.K.; Babu, P.N.; Sarkar, S.S.; Benerji, A.; Biswas, A.; Saji, A.K.; Samudraiah, D.R.M.; Kirankumar, A.S.; Pant, T.K.; Parimalarangan, T.;

Published by: Advances in Space Research      Published on: 08/2014

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1016/j.asr.2014.01.016

airglow; Electron density; Ionosphere; Rayleigh; thermosphere; Volume emission

Ionospheric TEC, thermospheric cooling and Σ[O/N2] compositional changes during the 6\textendash17 March 2012 magnetic storm interval (CAWSES II)

A series of four geomagnetic storms (the minimum SYM-H~-148\ nT) occurred during the March 6\textendash17, 2012 in the ascending phase of the solar cycle 24. This interval was selected by CAWSES II for its campaign. The GPS total electron content (TEC) database and JPL\textquoterights Global Ionospheric Maps (GIM) were used to study vertical TEC (VTEC) for different local times and latitude ranges. The largest response to geomagnetic activity is shown in increases of the low-latitude dayside VTEC. Several GPS sites f ...

Verkhoglyadova, O.P.; Tsurutani, B.T.; Mannucci, A.J.; Mlynczak, M.G.; Hunt, L.A.; Paxton, L.J.;

Published by: Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics      Published on: 08/2014

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1016/j.jastp.2013.11.009

Geomagnetic storms; Ionosphere; thermosphere

Quasi two day wave-related variability in the background dynamics and composition of the mesosphere/thermosphere and the ionosphere

Dissipating planetary waves in the mesosphere/lower thermosphere (MLT) region may cause changes in the background dynamics of that region, subsequently driving variability throughout the broader thermosphere/ionosphere system via mixing due to the induced circulation changes. We report the results of case studies examining the possibility of such coupling during the northern winter in the context of the quasi two day wave (QTDW)\textemdasha planetary wave that recurrently grows to large amplitudes from the summer MLT duri ...

Chang, Loren; Yue, Jia; Wang, Wenbin; Wu, Qian; Meier, R.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 06/2014

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1002/jgra.v119.610.1002/2014JA019936

composition; Ionosphere; mesosphere; quasi two day wave; thermosphere

2013

On the fast zonal transport of the STS-121 space shuttle exhaust plume in the lower thermosphere

Meier et al. (2011) reported rapid eastward transport of the STS-121 space shuttle (launch: July 4, 2006) main engine plume in the lower thermosphere, observed in hydrogen Lyman α images by the GUVI instrument onboard the TIMED satellite. In ord ...

Yue, Jia; Liu, Han-Li; Meier, R.R.; Chang, Loren; Gu, Sheng-Yang; , Russell;

Published by: Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics      Published on: Jan-03-2013

YEAR: 2013     DOI: 10.1016/j.jastp.2012.12.017

Modeling; thermosphere; Transport; Wind jet

The anomalous ionosphere between solar cycles 23 and 24

The solar minimum period during 2008\textendash2009 was characterized by lower thermospheric density than the previous solar minimum and lower than any previously measured. Recent work used the NCAR Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Electrodynamics General Circulation Model to show that the primary cause of density changes from 1996 to 2008 was a small reduction in solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV) irradiance, causing a decrease in thermospheric temperature and hence a contracted thermosphere. There are similar effects in the ionosph ...

Solomon, Stanley; Qian, Liying; Burns, Alan;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 10/2013

YEAR: 2013     DOI: 10.1002/jgra.v118.1010.1002/jgra.50561

climate; Ionosphere; irradiance; solar; thermosphere; ultraviolet

Ion-neutral coupling during deep solar minimum

The equatorial ionosphere under conditions of deep solar minimum exhibits structuring due to tidal forces. Data from instruments carried by the Communication/Navigation Outage Forecasting System (C/NOFS) which was launched in April 2008 have been analyzed for the first 2 years following launch. The Planar Langmuir Probe (PLP), Ion Velocity Meter (IVM) and Vector Electric Field Investigation (VEFI) all detect periodic structures during the 2008\textendash2010 period which appear to be tides. However when the tidal features ...

Huang, Cheryl; Roddy, Patrick; Sutton, Eric; Stoneback, Russell; Pfaff, Robert; Gentile, Louise; Delay, Susan;

Published by: Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics      Published on: 10/2013

YEAR: 2013     DOI: 10.1016/j.jastp.2012.11.009

Equatorial ionosphere; Nonmigrating tides; Plasma depletions; thermosphere

Multiple neutral density measurements in the lower thermosphere with cold-cathode ionization gauges

Cold-cathode ionization gauges were used for rocket-borne measurements of total neutral density and temperature in the aurorally forced lower thermosphere between 90 and 200\ km. A commercial gauge was adapted as a low-cost instrument with a spherical antechamber for measurements in molecular flow conditions. Three roll-stabilized payloads on different trajectories each carried two instruments for measurements near the ram flow direction along the respective upleg and downleg segments of a flight path, and six densit ...

Lehmacher, G.A.; Gaulden, T.M.; Larsen, M.F.; Craven, J.D.;

Published by: Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics      Published on: 01/2013

YEAR: 2013     DOI: 10.1016/j.jastp.2012.11.002

Instruments and techniques; Pressure density and temperature; thermosphere

2012

Modeling the effect of sudden stratospheric warming within the thermosphere\textendashionosphere system

This paper presents an investigation of thermospheric and ionospheric response to the sudden stratospheric warming (SSW) event, which took place in January 2009. This period was characterized by low solar and geomagnetic activity. Analysis was carried out within the Global Self-consistent Model of Thermosphere, Ionosphere and Protonosphere (GSM TIP). The experimental data of the atmospheric temperatures obtained by Aura satellite above Irkutsk and ionosonde data over Yakutsk and Irkutsk were utilized as well. SSW event wa ...

Bessarab, F.S.; Korenkov, Yu.N.; Klimenko, M.V.; Klimenko, V.V.; Karpov, I.V.; Ratovsky, K.G.; Chernigovskaya, M.A.;

Published by: Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics      Published on: 12/2012

YEAR: 2012     DOI: 10.1016/j.jastp.2012.09.005

Ionosphere; Modeling; sudden stratospheric warming; thermosphere

The global thermospheric and ionospheric response to the 2008 minor sudden stratospheric warming event

This paper presents a study of thermospheric and ionospheric response to the 2008 minor sudden stratospheric warming (SSW) event. This period was characterized by low solar and geomagnetic activity. The study was performed using the Global Self-consistent Model of Thermosphere, Ionosphere, and Protonosphere (GSM TIP). Model results were compared with ionosonde data from Irkutsk, Kaliningrad, Sao Jose dos Campos, and Jicamarca. The SSW event was modeled by specifying the temperature and density perturbations at the lower b ...

Korenkov, Y.; Klimenko, V.; Klimenko, M.; Bessarab, F.; Korenkova, N.; Ratovsky, K.; Chernigovskaya, M.; Shcherbakov, A.; Sahai, Y.; Fagundes, P.; de Jesus, R.; de Abreu, A.; Condor, P.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research      Published on: 10/2012

YEAR: 2012     DOI: 10.1029/2012JA018018

Electric field; Ionosphere; sudden stratospheric warming; thermosphere

Remote sensing of neutral temperatures in the Earth\textquoterights thermosphere using the Lyman-Birge-Hopfield bands of N 2 : Comparisons with satellite drag data

This paper presents remotely sensed neutral temperatures obtained from ultraviolet observations and compares them with temperatures from the NRLMSISE-00 version of the Mass Spectrometer and Incoherent Scatter (MSIS) model (unconstrained and constrained to match the total densities from satellite drag). Latitudinal profiles of the temperatures in the Earth\textquoterights thermosphere are obtained by inversion of high-resolution (\~1.3\ \r A) observations of the (1,1) and (5,4) Lyman-Birge-Hopfield (LBH) bands of N

Krywonos, Andrey; Murray, D.; Eastes, R.; Aksnes, A.; Budzien, S.; Daniell, R.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research      Published on: 09/2012

YEAR: 2012     DOI: 10.1029/2011JA017226

airglow; N2; remote sensing; satellite drag; temperature; thermosphere

2005

Solar EUV Experiment (SEE): Mission overview and first results

[1]\ The Solar EUV Experiment (SEE) is one of four scientific instruments on the NASA Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics Dynamics (TIMED) spacecraft, which has been simultaneously observing the Sun and Earth\textquoterights upper atmosphere since January 2002. The SEE instrument measures the irradiance of the highly variable, solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation, one of the major energy sources for the upper atmosphere. The primary SEE data product is the solar spectral irradiances from 0.1 to 194 nm ...

Woods, Thomas; Eparvier, Francis; Bailey, Scott; Chamberlin, Phillip; Lean, Judith; Rottman, Gary; Solomon, Stanley; Tobiska, Kent; Woodraska, Donald;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics (1978\textendash2012)      Published on:

YEAR: 2005     DOI: 10.1029/2004JA010765

thermosphere; solar activity cycle; solar irradiance; ultraviolet emissions; solar effects

2004

Quiet-time seasonal behavior of the thermosphere seen in the far ultraviolet dayglow

The TIMED/GUVI instrument is a far ultraviolet spectrograph that obtains images in five spectrally resolved wavelength channels. These images yield information on the dayside composition, temperature, solar EUV flux, large-scale wave structures, and auroral processes. In this paper we present an overview analysis of Earth-disk images for four seasons (March, July, and September 2002 and January 2003). Days were selected during geomagnetically quiet periods when the Sun was nearly in the orbital plane (noon orbits). Two of ...

Strickland, D.; Meier, R.; Walterscheid, R.; Christensen, A.; Paxton, L.; Morrison, D.; Craven, J.; Crowley, G.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research      Published on: 01/2004

YEAR: 2004     DOI: 10.1029/2003JA010220

far ultraviolet; remote sensing; seasonal behavior; thermosphere



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