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The uncertainties associated with the variations in the thermosphere are responsible for the inaccurate prediction of the orbit decay of low Earth orbiting space objects due to the drag force. Accurate forecasting of the thermosphere is urgently required to avoid satellite collisions, which is a potential threat to the rapid growth of spacecraft applications. However, owing to the imperfections in the physics-based forecast model, the long-range forecast of the thermosphere is still primitive even if the accurate prediction ...
Published by: Science China Earth Sciences Published on: jan
YEAR: 2022   DOI: 10.1007/s11430-021-9847-9
This paper describes the latest version of the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) model. IRI-2012 includes new models for the electron density and ion densities in the region below the F-peak, a storm-time model for the auroral E-region, an improved electron temperature model that includes variations with solar activity, and for the first time a description of auroral boundaries. In addition, the thermosphere model required for baseline neutral densities and temperatures was upgraded from MSIS-86 to the newer NRLMSI ...
Published by: Advances in Space Research Published on: 04/2015
YEAR: 2015   DOI: 10.1016/j.asr.2014.07.032