The Morphology of Equatorial Plasma Bubbles - a review

Abstract
<p>Plasma bubbles that occur in the equatorial F-region make up one of the most distinguishing phenomena in the ionosphere. Bubbles represent plasma depletions with respect to the background ionosphere, and are the major source of electron density irregularities in the equatorial F-region. Such bubbles are seen as plasma depletion holes (in situ satellite observations), vertical plumes (radar observations), and emission-depletion bands elongated in the north-south direction (optical observations). However, no technique can observe the whole three-dimensional structure of a bubble. Various aspects of bubbles identified using different techniques indicate that a bubble has a "shell" structure. This paper reviews the development of the concepts of "bubble" and "shell" in this context.</p>
Year of Publication
2015
Journal
Journal of Astronomy and Space Sciences
Volume
32
Number of Pages
13-19
Date Published
03/2013
ISSN Number
2093-5587
URL
http://koreascience.or.kr/journal/view.jsp?kj=OJOOBS\&py=2015\&vnc=v32n1\&sp=13http://ocean.kisti.re.kr/downfile/volume/kosss/OJOOBS/2015/v32n1/OJOOBS_2015_v32n1_13.pdf
DOI
10.5140/JASS.2015.32.1.13