Ionospheric-Thermospheric responses to the May and September 2017 geomagnetic storms over Asian regions
This paper presents the longitudinal dependence of ionospheric responses from Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) derived Total Electron Content (TEC) during two intense geomagnetic storms of May and September 2017. The GNSS-TEC is retrieved from four stations installed at the verge of low to mid-latitude Asian regions of Pakistan and China. Two ionospheric enhancements were observed during the storm of May 2017. The first one at local noon–afternoon during the storm main phase on 28 May was due to the southward turning of Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF-Bz) and eastward Prompt Penetration Electric Field (PPEF), with the maximum TEC enhancement at Wuhan. The second one at nighttime during the recovery phase of the storm on 29 May triggered ionospheric variations, mainly due to the later southward turning of the IMF-Bz as the Asian regions, were on the nightside with the westward PPEF. Negative storm time ionospheric responses were observed on 30 May, related to the change of the thermospheric composition as O/N2 depletion. Moreover, a significant increase in TEC was recorded during the main phase of the storm on 8 September 2017. This enhancement corresponded with the eastward PPEF and an increase in the O/N2. The TEC increment was also observed during the recovery phase on 9 September in the Pakistani stations. A minor storm on 7 September also gave rise to TEC enhancements, especially in western regions. However, the negative phase was registered from 9 to 10 September at each station because of the changes in the thermospheric composition as O/N2 depletion.
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Advances in Space Research