Ionospheric Response to the 23-31 August 2018 Geomagnetic Storm in the Europe-African Longitude Sector Using Multi-Instrument Observations
This study presents ionospheric responses of the mid and low-latitude region in the Europe-African longitude sector (along 30 +/- 10 deg E) to the intense geomagnetic storm of 23–31 August 2018 (SYM-Hmin = −207 nT) using the Global Ionospheric Map (GIM) and Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers data, the satellite data (SWARM, Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP), Global Ultraviolet Imager on board the Thermosphere, Ionosphere, Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics (GUVI/TIMED)), and Prompt Penetration Equatorial Electric Field model (PPEFM). The percentage deviation in total electron content (TEC) denoted by TEC () was used to observe the ionospheric storm effects.
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Advances in Space Research