Space weather forecasting: What we know now and what are the current and future challenges
Geomagnetic storms are caused by solar wind southward magnetic fields that impinge upon the Earth’s magnetosphere (Dungey, 1961). How can we forecast the occurrence of these interplanetary events? We view this as the most important challenge in Space Weather. We discuss the case for magnetic clouds (MCs), interplanetary sheaths upstream of ICMEs, corotating interaction regions (CIRs) and high speed streams (HSSs). The sheath- and CIR-related magnetic storms will be difficult to predict and will require better knowledge of the slow solar wind and modeling to solve.
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Nonlinear Processes Geophys. Discuss