Impact of CME and HSSW driven geomagnetic storms on thermosphere and ionosphere as observed from mid-latitudes
The present paper reports magnetospheric-thermospheric-ionospheric interactions, observed during geomagnetically disturbed periods in 2015–2016 from mid-latitude stations located in the US-Pacific longitudes (\textasciitilde120°W geographic). These interactions have been analyzed for a series of Coronal Mass Ejection (CME) and High Speed Solar Wind (HSSW) driven geomagnetic storms during the moderate solar activity periods. The geomagnetically disturbed periods under consideration in this paper have an interesting feature of the occurrences of one or more HSSW events following an intense CME driven intense geomagnetic storm. Correlations were observed between the solar and geomagnetic parameters, hemispherically integrated Joule heating, changes in O/N2 ratio, corresponding changes in neutral wind velocities and mid-latitude Vertical Total Electron Content (VTEC) in most of the cases. Prolonged effects of neutral wind driven equatorward plasma transport process were noticed during the period of the summer solstice (June 23–26, 2015) which was correlated with the hemispherically integrated Joule heating and ionospheric conductivities. The effects of storm onset were observed during March 17–18, 2015. The influences of the ‘super-fountain effect’ in terms of Prompt Penetration Electric Field (PPEF) were seen during the main phases of the geomagnetic storms from these mid-latitude stations. This is correlated with the strength of Equatorial Electrojet (EEJ).
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Advances in Space Research
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