Proton Aurora and Optical Emissions in the Subauroral Region
Optical structures located equatorward of the main auroral oval often exhibit different morphologies and dynamics than structures at higher latitudes. In some cases, questions arise regarding the formation mechanisms of these photon-emitting phenomena. New developments in space and ground-based instruments have enabled us to acquire a clearer view of the processes playing a role in the formation of subauroral structures. In addition, the discovery of new optical structures helps us improve our understanding of the latitudinal and altitudinal coupling that takes place in the subauroral region. However, several questions remain unanswered, requiring the development of new instruments and analysis techniques. We discuss optical phenomena in the subauroral region, summarize observational results, present conclusions about their origin, and pose a number of open questions that warrant further investigation of proton aurora, detached subauroral arcs and spots, stable auroral red (SAR) arcs, and STEVE (Strong Thermal Emission Velocity Enhancement).
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Space Science Reviews
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